Enicar Graph Collector’s Guide

INTRODUCTION

Enicar Graph timeline

A separate article has documented the development of the Sherpa brand which you can read here, and the further development of various models of 36mm to 40mm diameter, single and two crown, pilot and dive watches. This article covers the 3 crown Enicar Sherpa Graph chronometer and its derivatives.

Some wearers, particularly divers, do not like the extra size of a 42mm watch often found in chronometers. However, pilots and other sportsmen, coaches and racing drivers liked the convenience of a big dial. The Enicar Sherpa Graph provided both the size and functionality.

Early Enicar models
Two of the very first Graph models. Image courtesy of Gianvittorio Molteni

The earlier single and two crown articles demonstrated the marketing link between Enicar and active sportsmen who needed reliable watches, and the 1958 Enicar Sherpa advertisements featured the racing car driver, Stirling Moss.

1958 ad
A 1958 Enicar advertisement featuring racer Stirling Moss

In 1960 Enicar introduced a revolutionary model, the Sherpa Graph, based on a Valjoux 72 calibre movement, and again Stirling Moss was used to promoting the watch, saying in the advertisement below, “The ENICAR Sherpa is definitely the watch I have always wanted.”

Stirling Moss Graph endorsement
Stirling Moss Graph endorsement: Image courtesy of Gianvittorio Molteni

 

The Sherpa Graph model in the advertisement above is the Mark I model with gladium hands.

Sherpa Graph Mark I
Sherpa Graph Mark I:  Image courtesy Raul Taje   (Steel Time)

The racing car driver Jim Clark was also a user of the Sherpa Graph and his name is linked to the first edition of the  Sherpa Graph, in what has since become a collector’s favourite.  Below is a May 1960 model.

Sherpa Graph 1950s
A May 1960 model of the Enicar Sherpa Graph (image by omegaforums user io8194)

The pilot advertisement of the Sherpa Graph at the time also featured a racing car and the connection to the use of a chronometer in any cockpit is shown below.

Sherpa Graph French Ad

As well as the Graph model, the 3 crown Valjoux 72 calibre was also used in other Enicar Graph watches; the diving AquaGraph, the Super Graph and the GMT Jet Graph.

Aqua, Sherpa and Jet Graph
Image by chronocentric forum user: Gianvittorio Molteni

This article covers the development of the 3 crown Enicar Sherpa Graph chronometers with the Valjoux 72 calibre movement.

ENICAR GRAPH’S VALJOUX 72 CALIBER

Valjoux 72 Calibre
Image from sometimeago.com

Please see www.sometimeago.com for the most comprehensive resource on Enicar’s use of the Valjoux 72 that we are aware of.

THE BAYONET CASE

All Graph watches used the Super Compressor bayonet case made by case manufacturer Ervin Piquerez S.A. (EPSA) exclusively for Enicar. This was subject to brevet or patent #314962. This can be seen engraved on the back of the case, and stamped inside the case back is a diving helmet. The Super Compressor cases also have a cross hatched crown.

Enicar Bayonet Case patent document

THE ENICAR GRAPH MODELS

MARK I GRAPH

The early Enicar Graph models featured Roman or gladium hands or lollypop hands. All Mark I Graph models had an applied logo with ENICAR embedded in the Saturn image.

Below is a very rare 1960 model with gladium hands produced in May 1960.

This first model, Mark I, has leaf style hands on the subdials, and a high quality copper colour Valjoux 72 calibre movement. The back of the supercompressor case featured the Enicar clover symbol. The early models had “TACHYMETRE BASE 1000”  engraved on the tachymeter bezel, and the scale went to 300.

 

1960 with gladium hands
Image credits: 1st image from chronocentric forum user Gianvittorio Molteni, 2nd and 3rd images by omegaforums user io8194
Sherpa Graph
Image credit :  Raul Taje  (Steel Time)

 

The gladium hands were difficult to produce and maintain as evidenced by the skeleton hands above.   Only a handful of the gladium hand models are thought to exist.

A so called “Jim Clark” gladium hand model is shown below.  Jim Clark wore the Enicar Sherpa Graph and gave several to his racing team after winning the World F1 Championship in 1963.

Jim Clark Sherpa Graph

This watch is engraved “In Appreciation,  World Championship,  1963,  Jim Clark” on the cloverleaf case back which also reads both Seapearl and Sherpa, and model number 1608.

Jim Clark Sherpa graph back case

The Mark 1B model has easier to manufacture, and maintain, paddle or lollypop hands which are more common in the Graph, and feature in the advertising material at the time, as in the cockpit advertisement above and the advertisement below for Model 1308.

Enicar

The hands on the 3 subdials remain leaf pattern. The case remained as the Enicar Graph supercompressor with the clover symbol.  A black dial,  May 1960 model is shown below. It is thought that only 11 Mark I models with “TACHYMETRE BASE 1000” engraved on the tachymeter bezel exist today.

Enicar Mark IB
Images by omegaforum user io8194
Enicar May 1960 model
Another May 1960 model, with skeleton hands.  Image credit :  Jaime Garchitorena

 

In 1963 Jim Clark gave his chief engineer Dick Scammell a Enicar Sherpa Graph in appreciation for his help in winning the F1 World Championship. This watch is similar to the model above, and has lollipop hands and leaf hands on the subdials, and the back case reads Enicar with the clover symbol.   The watch is featured at 1:06 in the video below.

The Mark 1C Graph featured arrow and pencil subdial hands, but now there were sometimes no words on the tachymeter bezel,  just the numbers from 60 to 300.  Again, the Enicar in Saturn logo was applied.   Model number 1308 continued.

Enicar Mark IC Graph
Image from omegaforums user: io8194

 

This model below with a black dial was in production in November 1961.

Enicar Sherpa Graph dial and caseback
Image courtesy of kaplans.se

 

Graph mk1B

This model above has a thin pointer second hand, and does not have TACHYMETRE on the bezel.   With the cloverleaf case back, and original stainless steel Enicar strap.

Enicar Sherpa Graph
Image by klocksnack user: Viking

 

The model above has a red lollipop second hand and does not have TACHYMETRE on the bezel.

Another model of November 1961 with a thin pointer second hand, and TACHYMETRE on the bezel.

Enicar Sherpa Graph White Dial
Image courtesy of Amer Sibai

 

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph Panda
Panda dial model with Tachymetre on bezel. April 1962 model.

 

Below is a special cinematographer’s model made in about 1961.  The bezel is marked in both frames and feet of film used in a time period.

Sherpa Graph, cinematographer model.
Image : https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=O_GuksDi1kc

 

Film 35 mm wide with four perforations per frame (4-perf) became accepted as the international standard gauge in 1909, and remained the dominant film gauge for image capture and projection until the advent of digital photography and cinematography, despite challenges from smaller and larger gauges.

2-perf or Techniscope is a 35mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1960. The Techniscope format used a two film-perforation negative pulldown per frame, instead of the standard four-perforation frame.  It had several advantages and was attractive for several reasons, mostly as 2-perf doubles the number of minutes per 1000ft can of film.

2-perf was used with great effect by James Cameron to shoot the actual Titanic wreck for the movie Titanic in 1997.  (It was later digitally converted to 4-perf Super-35).   The advantage was the longer running time possible on the camera loads while submerged for such a long time diving down to the wreck.

During its period of heavy use, between 1960–1980, more than 350 films were photographed in Techniscope, the first of which was The Pharaoh’s Woman, released in December 1960.  Given the considerable savings in production cost, but lesser image quality, Techniscope was primarily an alternative format used by low-budget horror and western filmmakers. Since the format originated in Italy, most Techniscope format films were European productions, including the so called spaghetti westerns, A Fistful of Dollars (1964), For a Few Dollars More (1965) and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966)

So the cinematographer using this Enicar Sherpa Graph stopwatch (vintage about 1961) could easily see how many frames he had shot at 24 frames per second, and how many feet of film he had used at 45.0 feet per minute.

MARK II GRAPH

The Mark II  models had the revised logo with a little Saturn with Enicar below and were released in 1962. This model just had TACHYMETRE engraved on the bezel, or again the word was missing, and the scale went to 300. The case back was still a supercompressor bayonet back, but now with Sea Pearl and an oyster in the centre.  Model number was still 1308.

Enicar Graph Mark II
Image courtesy of omegafroums user io8194

Below is a white dialed version.

Enicar Graph Mark II White Dial

These models sometimes did not have TACHYMETRE on the bezel. Below is such a model, still with arrow hands on “pie tin” subdials, and a Seapearl oyster back.

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph
Image by watchuseek user: twleve199 (@aaroncynthia on IG)

A similar Mark II model with TACHYMETRE on the bezel.  Image courtesy Omega Forums member Kidkimura.

The Mark IIB was similar to the previous model but had a yellow plated movement, but pencil subdial hands replaced the arrow hands.   The second hand had a small bulb on the rear end.

Enicar Graph Mark IIB
Images by watchuseek forum user: Dogen

 

Mark III Graph

The Mark III model was released as Enicar model number 2343 but now had a Sherpa 300 bayonet Seapearl back (circa 1965).  The second hand had a round lollipop red dot, and the subdials all had stick pointers.   The case back also featured 072/001 as a model designation.

The tachymetre scale usually went to 300 but also to 1000.

Sherpa Graph Mark III
Image from vegaban.blogspot.com.au

 

Enicar Sherpa Graph 300 Ref 2343 copy
Image by chronocentric forum user: Fabrizio Caso

 

The model below has the original ricegrain bracelet and silver “pie-tin”subdials.

Enicar Graph white dial
Image courtesy of http://www.thewatchgallery.com.au/

 

Enicar Graph Mark III
Image by chronomatic user Nic Green

 

This model with a white dial has a white lollipop dot second hand.

Enicar Graph MkIII
There was also a model with a thin pencil second hand.
Enicar Graph Ad scan
Image by watchuseek forum user: Kazrich

 

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph
Image by watchuseek forum user: Kazrich

 

Black Enicar Graph
An all black dial with lollipop dot second hand. Image by watchuseek user: gr8sw

 

At the same time, Enicar released a non-Sherpa model number 2303 with a less cluttered dial (the words Enicar Sherpa Graph are missing), and a thinner crown. Some people mistakenly consider this to be pre-Sherpa, but the logo is early 1960’s Saturn over Enicar. This has been called the Enicar Garnix.   Case back is plain, engraved 072/003.   Below is a gold-filled model.

Enical Garnix 2303 072/003
The Enicar Garnix

 

Enicar Chronograph

MARK IV GRAPH

The Mark IV model had baton hands and a Sherpa 300 Seapearl case back and was introduced in 1966/7. The word tachymeter is sometimes used instead of tachymetre for the 500 scale, and the scale went to 300 or 500, and rarely 1000. The baton hands are those of the corresponding Mark III Sherpa Guide.  The second hand varied and was either red triangular tapered or red lollipop dot in style.   A red subdial hand was sometimes used.

The model number was 072-02-01 with the 072 signifying the Valjoux movement, but the Mark III lollipop hands were also used in this case as a runout.

The new dial often had a white or black chapter ring at the minute markers, and lumes were not applied at the 5-minute indexes as in prior models.

The model below has a 500 scale which reads TACHYMETER.

Enicar Graph Mark IV
Image by chronocentric user: Haroon Sarwar

 

The Enicar Graph model in the illustration below shows the new model hands, but without the coloured chapter ring.

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph Ad

A few transitional models with the previous dial, without the coloured chapter ring, continued to be produced, and a September 1967 model is shown below.

Enicar Graph transitional model

Two similar white pie tin models, NOS, are shown below.

Enicar Graph NOS 072-02-01

 

And, another.

 

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph

This watch has TACHYMETRE on the bezel, which goes to 500, and the watch has no coloured chapter ring as in the model in the advertisement above. Image by IG user @aaroncynthia

This 1967 model has a tapered triangle second hand, but the tachymetre scale stops at 300.

Enicar Graph 1967
Image by timezone forum user: Fazmaster

This white dial model has “pie-tin” subdials, one with a red hand,  and a black chapter ring at the minute markers.

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph in white dial
This model has a red dot lollipop second hand.

 

And below a white faced model with only black hands on the subdials, and a pencil second hand.

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph in white dial
This model has a red dot lollipop second hand.

 

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph
Image by watchuseek forum user: Kazrich

 

Enicar Graph
Image credit Chronocentric user: AR

 

This November 1968 model above is numbered 2342 and features the wording TACHYMETER on the bezel with a scale to 500.   It has pie tin subdials with a red subdial hand.

Enicar Graph with a red strap
Image credit Chronocentric user : Rene Dracha

Another November 1968 model numbered 2342, but features the wording TACHYMETRE on the bezel with a scale to 300, with a white chapter ring.   It has white subdials with a red subdial hand.

A navy blue dial model, below

Graph MkIV

Below is a 2342 model with a tachymetre scale which goes to 1000 without the word tachymetre imprinted on the bezel.

2342 Enicar Sherpa Graph tachymetre 1000

The tachymeter dial below has a “BASE 1 MILE” scale to 1000.

This watch has a Mark IV style chapter ring at the minute markers, and Mark IV index markers, but Mark II model hands including those on the subdials. The second hand has a unique reverse arrow at the base of the pivot.

Enicar Graph grey dial
Image by uhrforum user: Käfer

 

The Enicar Garnix model 2303 continued with baton hands as in the Mark IV model line as well, still with caliber Valjoux 72.    Red thin triangle second hand, case back 072/003.

The guarantee is dated December 1969.

Enicar Garnix 2303

THE AQUAGRAPH, SUPER GRAPH AND JET GRAPH

Developed later than the Graph in 1960, in the late sixties (about 1967) the Graph gained a rotating bezel and other Graph models were produced.

The case was the Sherpa 300 supercompressor model.

This advertisement is from the Chronosport catalogue of 1969.

Enicar Graph catalog

AQUAGRAPH

The advertisement below says :

“ENICAR – Instrument suppliers to the US Navy, major European airlines and governments have designed …..The ENICAR AQUAGRAPH For men whose lives depend on it.”

Enicar Graph: Aquagraph ad

Enicar Graph: Aquagraph
Two panda dialled Aquagraph models. 2nd image courtesy of IG user @watchdave

The early AquaGraph of 1966 approximately had the earlier Enicar paddle or rectangular lollipop hands. This watch has an arrow hand subdial similar to the 1961 Mark I Graph model. The rotating bezel is similar to the two crown Sherpa Dive with no numerals at the 5-minute intervals, nor the 30-minute mark.

Enicar Graph: Aquagraph 1967
Image by uhforum user: Käfer

 

An advertisement for the 072-02-02 model is shown below.

Early Aquagraph, Mark II, with bezel marked 10,20,40 and 50 only, arrow second hand and arrow sub-register at 6 o’clock.  This watch is missing the red rotating triangular pointer ring.

Enicar Graph
Image courtesy: watchuseek forum user pwriterman.

 

Enicar Aqua Graph

A white faced model above.

June 1966 model
A June 1966 model with more commonly seen bezel. (Image credit: Aaron King)

 

The red triangular indicator ring is missing on the April 1967 model below, but this has an interesting rotating bezel with full height tick marks, and numerals of the same size at every 5 minutes, and hours 1 to 11 in small numerals beneath.

Enicar Graph: Aquagraph
Image courtesy of watchmeandyou.com

 

The next models retained the bezel with numerals every 5 minutes but these alternated in size and changed to baton hands.

Dials varied, as for the Graph models above. Second hands were tapered triangular or red lollipop dot, and faces were white or black, with and without a contrasting chapter ring.  Some models were marked SWISS on the 12-hour sub-register at 6 o’clock, but most were SWISS MADE either side of the 12-hour sub-register.

Enicar Graph: Aquagraph
Image courtesy of boldwatches.wordpress.com

 

The AquaGraph had a rotating bezel for divers, with either one or two lumes marking the hour on the bezel.  The AquaGraph was in a Sherpa oyster 300 case, model 072-02-02, waterproof to 100m.

The AquaGraph is shown below on the right, along with the much rarer Super Graph on the left. The Jet Graph is in the centre.

Enicar Graph watches
Image courtesy of watchuseek forum user: Dogen

 

The 1967 model has a triangular second hand and the baton hands of the Mark IV Graph model. The rotating bezel has 2 tritium dots at the 1 and 59 marks.

Enicar Graph: Aquagraph
Image credits: chronocentric user Christopher J. Lichauco (1st image), boldwatches.wordpress.com (2nd image)

 

The 1968 model is shown on the left below. Just as the Mark IV Graph model had triangular and lollipop second hands, this variant has a lollipop second hand. It also has a tritium dot at 0/60 on the rotating bezel.

Enicar Graph: 1968 Aquagraph
Image courtesy of boldwatches.wordpress.com

 

A May 1969 model with ivory dial is shown below.

Below is a NOS tapered second-hand model, with red pointer on the sub-dial at 3 o’clock, and marked SWISS on the 6 o’clock sub-register.

Enicar Graph
Image credit: Jaime Garchitorena

 

Below is an August 1969 model with a Sherpa 300 case marked 072-02-02A, with the dial just signed Enicar.

Sherpa graph not aqua

SUPER GRAPH

The advertisement for this model is on the left below.

Enicar Graph: Sherpa Graph manual

One known example is shown below. This has the paddle or rectangular lollipop hands used by Enicar in the early 1960’s.

For this model, the rotating bezel counts down in reverse, from 60 to 0 rather than 0 to 60 as on a dive watch.

Enicar Graph: Super Graph
Image by watchuseek forum user: Dogen

 

Enicar Graph: Super Graph
A later model panda dial Super Graph with baton hands. Image courtesy of IG user: @aaroncynthia

 

JET GRAPH

The Jet Graph has already been seen at the centre of the Super Graph and Aquagraph in the photograph above, with a rotating bezel marked 1 to 24 hours.   It is quite large, 40mm outside pushers, and 13mm thick.   Early models were released in 1965 as 072/002 and later 072.02.02 and 072.02.02A

Below is a comparison compilation with the Graph and AquaGraph.

Enicar Graph and AquaGraph watches
Image courtesy of boldwatches.wordpress.com

 

 

Black dial Sherpa Jet Graph
Image courtesy: David Scobling

 

The early Jet Graph had paddle lollipop hands and a thin second hand and 24-hour pointer, which were yellow-tipped.   The above model has a rare all-black dial.  The second hand and 24-hour pointer were easily confused, and the design changed quickly, with baton hands and a triangular second hand as a replacement.

Jet Graph
Image courtesy Kaplans Auktioner.

 

A pie tin model below.

Jet Graph

This model 072/002 has the revised baton hands and thin triangle second hand.

The model below is a 1968 Jet Graph with Valjoux 724 movement, with a rallye 24-hour hand, and a thin pointer second hand. The 724 movement allowed the 24-hour function.  The hand on the right subdial is red. The watch is 40mm diameter and 49mm overall.

Enicar Graph: 1968 Jet Graph
Image by watchuseek forum user: primabaleron

 

The watch below is a May 1969 model with Sherpa 300 case.  2342 engraved inside case back.

Enicar Graph: Jet Graph
Image by watchuseek user: twleve199 (@aaroncynthia on IG)

 

This watch is model 172-02-02 with a thin triangular second hand

172-02-02 Sherpa Jet Graph enicar

 

This watch has a yellow and black Rallye pointer, and a lollipop style second hand. The rice grain strap is featured in the advertisement below.

Image courtesy of watchmeandyou.com
Image courtesy of watchmeandyou.com

 

Pilot watches ad

 

Jet Graph Sherpa
Image Courtesy Omega Forums user : Mick Tock

 

The above model 072-02-02A has a thin pointer second hand.

Sherpa black dial jet graph
Above is a rare all-black model with lollipop second hand.

 

PILOTE

The Pilote is an extremely rare version of the Jet Graph. The advertising above refers to various aviation uses, including assisting in navigation as the watch was issued to SAS and Swissair pilots.

Below is a June 1966 Pilote with paddle lollipop hands, a lollipop second hand, Valjoux 72 movement and Sherpa 300 oyster case, model 072-02-02.

Pilote

A later model with the revised lozenge lumed baton hands is pictured below. The left subdial now has a red hand, but not the right subdial.

Pilote
Image by uhrforum user: Käfer

 

ENICAR GRAPH’S RECOMMENDATIONS

PLACE TO START

The place to start would be to collect one of the Graph models which ran from 1960 onwards. The early lollipop or paddle hand models are eagerly sought after, so the later versions with baton hands would be a place to start.  Any would look great on the wrist.

THE BEATER

Try an AquaGraph or Jet Graph

An 1967/8 Aquagraph recently sold for $3400. This was in poor condition. Looking for an Aquagraph in good condition would take some considerable time.

AquaGraph late 60's

A Jet Graph with Valjoux 724 not working well also recently reached nearly $4000.

Jet Graph model

THE KEEPER

The keeper would be one of the early Graphs with paddle or lollipop hands. The model with the Roman sword or gladium hands is virtually unique.  Failing this, a later model with paddle hands would be a goal. Current prices would be in the $20,000 range for an excellent model.

THE GRAIL

The ultimate Graph watch is the super rare, super cool, Super Graph. So few change hands the price cannot be estimated, but one changed hands recently.

 Super Graph
Image by watchuseek forum user: Dogen

 

 

From The Spring Bar Store:

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

 

You Might Also Like