A separate article has documented the development of the Sherpa brand which you can read here, and the further development of various models of 36mm to 40mm diameter, single and two crown, pilot and dive watches. This article covers the 3 crown Enicar Sherpa Graph chronometer and its derivatives.
Some wearers, particularly divers, do not like the extra size of a 42mm watch often found in chronometers. However, pilots and other sportsmen, coaches and racing drivers liked the convenience of a big dial. The Enicar Sherpa Graph provided both the size and functionality.
The earlier single and two crown articles demonstrated the marketing link between Enicar and active sportsmen who needed reliable watches, and the 1958 Enicar Sherpa advertisements featured the racing car driver, Stirling Moss.
In 1960 Enicar introduced a revolutionary model, the Sherpa Graph, based on a Valjoux 72 calibre movement, and again Stirling Moss was used to promoting the watch, saying in the advertisement below, “The ENICAR Sherpa is definitely the watch I have always wanted.”
The Sherpa Graph model in the advertisement above is the Mark I model with gladium hands.
The racing car driver Jim Clark was also a user of the Sherpa Graph and his name is linked to the first edition of the Sherpa Graph, in what has since become a collector’s favourite. Below is a May 1960 model.
The pilot advertisement of the Sherpa Graph at the time also featured a racing car and the connection to the use of a chronometer in any cockpit is shown below.
As well as the Graph model, the 3 crown Valjoux 72 calibre was also used in other Enicar Graph watches; the diving AquaGraph, the Super Graph and the GMT Jet Graph.
This article covers the development of the 3 crown Enicar Sherpa Graph chronometers with the Valjoux 72 calibre movement.
ENICAR GRAPH’S VALJOUX 72 CALIBER
Please see www.sometimeago.com for the most comprehensive resource on Enicar’s use of the Valjoux 72 that we are aware of.
THE BAYONET CASE
All Graph watches used the Super Compressor bayonet case made by case manufacturer Ervin Piquerez S.A. (EPSA) exclusively for Enicar. This was subject to brevet or patent #314962. This can be seen engraved on the back of the case, and stamped inside the case back is a diving helmet. The Super Compressor cases also have a cross hatched crown.
THE ENICAR GRAPH MODELS
MARK I GRAPH
The early Enicar Graph models featured Roman or gladium hands or lollypop hands. All Mark I Graph models had an applied logo with ENICAR embedded in the Saturn image.
Below is a very rare 1960 model with gladium hands produced in May 1960.
This first model, Mark I, has leaf style hands on the subdials, and a high quality copper colour Valjoux 72 calibre movement. The back of the supercompressor case featured the Enicar clover symbol. The early models had “TACHYMETRE BASE 1000” engraved on the tachymeter bezel, and the scale went to 300.
The gladium hands were difficult to produce and maintain as evidenced by the skeleton hands above. Only a handful of the gladium hand models are thought to exist.
A so called “Jim Clark” gladium hand model is shown below. Jim Clark wore the Enicar Sherpa Graph and gave several to his racing team after winning the World F1 Championship in 1963.
This watch is engraved “In Appreciation, World Championship, 1963, Jim Clark” on the cloverleaf case back which also reads both Seapearl and Sherpa, and model number 1608.
The Mark 1B model has easier to manufacture, and maintain, paddle or lollypop hands which are more common in the Graph, and feature in the advertising material at the time, as in the cockpit advertisement above and the advertisement below for Model 1308.
The hands on the 3 subdials remain leaf pattern. The case remained as the Enicar Graph supercompressor with the clover symbol. A black dial, May 1960 model is shown below. It is thought that only 11 Mark I models with “TACHYMETRE BASE 1000” engraved on the tachymeter bezel exist today.
In 1963 Jim Clark gave his chief engineer Dick Scammell a Enicar Sherpa Graph in appreciation for his help in winning the F1 World Championship. This watch is similar to the model above, and has lollipop hands and leaf hands on the subdials, and the back case reads Enicar with the clover symbol. The watch is featured at 1:06 in the video below.
The Mark 1C Graph featured arrow and pencil subdial hands, but now there were sometimes no words on the tachymeter bezel, just the numbers from 60 to 300. Again, the Enicar in Saturn logo was applied. Model number 1308 continued.
This model below with a black dial was in production in November 1961.
This model above has a thin pointer second hand, and does not have TACHYMETRE on the bezel. With the cloverleaf case back, and original stainless steel Enicar strap.
The model above has a red lollipop second hand and does not have TACHYMETRE on the bezel.
Another model of November 1961 with a thin pointer second hand, and TACHYMETRE on the bezel.
Below is a special cinematographer’s model made in about 1961. The bezel is marked in both frames and feet of film used in a time period.
Film 35 mm wide with four perforations per frame (4-perf) became accepted as the international standard gauge in 1909, and remained the dominant film gauge for image capture and projection until the advent of digital photography and cinematography, despite challenges from smaller and larger gauges.
2-perf or Techniscope is a 35mm motion picture camera film format introduced by Technicolor Italia in 1960. The Techniscope format used a two film-perforation negative pulldown per frame, instead of the standard four-perforation frame. It had several advantages and was attractive for several reasons, mostly as 2-perf doubles the number of minutes per 1000ft can of film.
2-perf was used with great effect by James Cameron to shoot the actual Titanic wreck for the movie Titanic in 1997. (It was later digitally converted to 4-perf Super-35). The advantage was the longer running time possible on the camera loads while submerged for such a long time diving down to the wreck.
During its period of heavy use, between 1960–1980, more than 350 films were photographed in Techniscope, the first of which was The Pharaoh’s Woman, released in December 1960. Given the considerable savings in production cost, but lesser image quality, Techniscope was primarily an alternative format used by low-budget horror and western filmmakers. Since the format originated in Italy, most Techniscope format films were European productions, including the so called spaghetti westerns, A Fistful of Dollars (1964), For a Few Dollars More (1965) and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966)
MARK II GRAPH
The Mark II models had the revised logo with a little Saturn with Enicar below and were released in 1962. This model just had TACHYMETRE engraved on the bezel, or again the word was missing, and the scale went to 300. The case back was still a supercompressor bayonet back, but now with Sea Pearl and an oyster in the centre. Model number was still 1308.
Below is a white dialed version.
These models sometimes did not have TACHYMETRE on the bezel. Below is such a model, still with arrow hands on “pie tin” subdials, and a Seapearl oyster back.
A similar Mark II model with TACHYMETRE on the bezel. Image courtesy Omega Forums member Kidkimura.
The Mark IIB was similar to the previous model but had a yellow plated movement, but pencil subdial hands replaced the arrow hands. The second hand had a small bulb on the rear end.
Mark III Graph
The Mark III model was released as Enicar model number 2343 but now had a Sherpa 300 bayonet Seapearl back (circa 1965). The second hand had a round lollipop red dot, and the subdials all had stick pointers. The case back also featured 072/001 as a model designation.
The tachymetre scale usually went to 300 but also to 1000.
The model below has the original ricegrain bracelet and silver “pie-tin”subdials.
This model with a white dial has a white lollipop dot second hand.
At the same time, Enicar released a non-Sherpa model number 2303 with a less cluttered dial (the words Enicar Sherpa Graph are missing), and a thinner crown. Some people mistakenly consider this to be pre-Sherpa, but the logo is early 1960’s Saturn over Enicar. This has been called the Enicar Garnix. Case back is plain, engraved 072/003. Below is a gold-filled model.
MARK IV GRAPH
The Mark IV model had baton hands and a Sherpa 300 Seapearl case back and was introduced in 1966/7. The word tachymeter is sometimes used instead of tachymetre for the 500 scale, and the scale went to 300 or 500, and rarely 1000. The baton hands are those of the corresponding Mark III Sherpa Guide. The second hand varied and was either red triangular tapered or red lollipop dot in style. A red subdial hand was sometimes used.
The model number was 072-02-01 with the 072 signifying the Valjoux movement, but the Mark III lollipop hands were also used in this case as a runout.
The new dial often had a white or black chapter ring at the minute markers, and lumes were not applied at the 5-minute indexes as in prior models.
The model below has a 500 scale which reads TACHYMETER.
The Enicar Graph model in the illustration below shows the new model hands, but without the coloured chapter ring.
A few transitional models with the previous dial, without the coloured chapter ring, continued to be produced, and a September 1967 model is shown below.
Two similar white pie tin models, NOS, are shown below.
This watch has TACHYMETRE on the bezel, which goes to 500, and the watch has no coloured chapter ring as in the model in the advertisement above. Image by IG user @aaroncynthia
This 1967 model has a tapered triangle second hand, but the tachymetre scale stops at 300.
This white dial model has “pie-tin” subdials, one with a red hand, and a black chapter ring at the minute markers.
And below a white faced model with only black hands on the subdials, and a pencil second hand.
This November 1968 model above is numbered 2342 and features the wording TACHYMETER on the bezel with a scale to 500. It has pie tin subdials with a red subdial hand.
Another November 1968 model numbered 2342, but features the wording TACHYMETRE on the bezel with a scale to 300, with a white chapter ring. It has white subdials with a red subdial hand.
A navy blue dial model, below
Below is a 2342 model with a tachymetre scale which goes to 1000 without the word tachymetre imprinted on the bezel.
The tachymeter dial below has a “BASE 1 MILE” scale to 1000.
This watch has a Mark IV style chapter ring at the minute markers, and Mark IV index markers, but Mark II model hands including those on the subdials. The second hand has a unique reverse arrow at the base of the pivot.
The Enicar Garnix model 2303 continued with baton hands as in the Mark IV model line as well, still with caliber Valjoux 72. Red thin triangle second hand, case back 072/003.
The guarantee is dated December 1969.
THE AQUAGRAPH, SUPER GRAPH AND JET GRAPH
Developed later than the Graph in 1960, in the late sixties (about 1967) the Graph gained a rotating bezel and other Graph models were produced.
The case was the Sherpa 300 supercompressor model.
This advertisement is from the Chronosport catalogue of 1969.
The advertisement below says :
“ENICAR – Instrument suppliers to the US Navy, major European airlines and governments have designed …..The ENICAR AQUAGRAPH For men whose lives depend on it.”
The early AquaGraph of 1966 approximately had the earlier Enicar paddle or rectangular lollipop hands. This watch has an arrow hand subdial similar to the 1961 Mark I Graph model. The rotating bezel is similar to the two crown Sherpa Dive with no numerals at the 5-minute intervals, nor the 30-minute mark.
An advertisement for the 072-02-02 model is shown below.
Early Aquagraph, Mark II, with bezel marked 10,20,40 and 50 only, arrow second hand and arrow sub-register at 6 o’clock. This watch is missing the red rotating triangular pointer ring.
A white faced model above.
The red triangular indicator ring is missing on the April 1967 model below, but this has an interesting rotating bezel with full height tick marks, and numerals of the same size at every 5 minutes, and hours 1 to 11 in small numerals beneath.
The next models retained the bezel with numerals every 5 minutes but these alternated in size and changed to baton hands.
Dials varied, as for the Graph models above. Second hands were tapered triangular or red lollipop dot, and faces were white or black, with and without a contrasting chapter ring. Some models were marked SWISS on the 12-hour sub-register at 6 o’clock, but most were SWISS MADE either side of the 12-hour sub-register.
The AquaGraph had a rotating bezel for divers, with either one or two lumes marking the hour on the bezel. The AquaGraph was in a Sherpa oyster 300 case, model 072-02-02, waterproof to 100m.
The AquaGraph is shown below on the right, along with the much rarer Super Graph on the left. The Jet Graph is in the centre.
The 1967 model has a triangular second hand and the baton hands of the Mark IV Graph model. The rotating bezel has 2 tritium dots at the 1 and 59 marks.
The 1968 model is shown on the left below. Just as the Mark IV Graph model had triangular and lollipop second hands, this variant has a lollipop second hand. It also has a tritium dot at 0/60 on the rotating bezel.
A May 1969 model with ivory dial is shown below.
Below is a NOS tapered second-hand model, with red pointer on the sub-dial at 3 o’clock, and marked SWISS on the 6 o’clock sub-register.
Below is an August 1969 model with a Sherpa 300 case marked 072-02-02A, with the dial just signed Enicar.
The advertisement for this model is on the left below.
One known example is shown below. This has the paddle or rectangular lollipop hands used by Enicar in the early 1960’s.
For this model, the rotating bezel counts down in reverse, from 60 to 0 rather than 0 to 60 as on a dive watch.
The Jet Graph has already been seen at the centre of the Super Graph and Aquagraph in the photograph above, with a rotating bezel marked 1 to 24 hours. It is quite large, 40mm outside pushers, and 13mm thick. Early models were released in 1965 as 072/002 and later 072.02.02 and 072.02.02A
Below is a comparison compilation with the Graph and AquaGraph.
The early Jet Graph had paddle lollipop hands and a thin second hand and 24-hour pointer, which were yellow-tipped. The above model has a rare all-black dial. The second hand and 24-hour pointer were easily confused, and the design changed quickly, with baton hands and a triangular second hand as a replacement.
A pie tin model below.
This model 072/002 has the revised baton hands and thin triangle second hand.
The model below is a 1968 Jet Graph with Valjoux 724 movement, with a rallye 24-hour hand, and a thin pointer second hand. The 724 movement allowed the 24-hour function. The hand on the right subdial is red. The watch is 40mm diameter and 49mm overall.
The watch below is a May 1969 model with Sherpa 300 case. 2342 engraved inside case back.
This watch is model 172-02-02 with a thin triangular second hand
This watch has a yellow and black Rallye pointer, and a lollipop style second hand. The rice grain strap is featured in the advertisement below.
The above model 072-02-02A has a thin pointer second hand.
The Pilote is an extremely rare version of the Jet Graph. The advertising above refers to various aviation uses, including assisting in navigation as the watch was issued to SAS and Swissair pilots.
Below is a June 1966 Pilote with paddle lollipop hands, a lollipop second hand, Valjoux 72 movement and Sherpa 300 oyster case, model 072-02-02.
A later model with the revised lozenge lumed baton hands is pictured below. The left subdial now has a red hand, but not the right subdial.
ENICAR GRAPH’S RECOMMENDATIONS
PLACE TO START
The place to start would be to collect one of the Graph models which ran from 1960 onwards. The early lollipop or paddle hand models are eagerly sought after, so the later versions with baton hands would be a place to start. Any would look great on the wrist.
Try an AquaGraph or Jet Graph
An 1967/8 Aquagraph recently sold for $3400. This was in poor condition. Looking for an Aquagraph in good condition would take some considerable time.
A Jet Graph with Valjoux 724 not working well also recently reached nearly $4000.
The keeper would be one of the early Graphs with paddle or lollipop hands. The model with the Roman sword or gladium hands is virtually unique. Failing this, a later model with paddle hands would be a goal. Current prices would be in the $20,000 range for an excellent model.
The ultimate Graph watch is the super rare, super cool, Super Graph. So few change hands the price cannot be estimated, but one changed hands recently.
From The Spring Bar Store: